50,000 small-scale farmers from all over the country work under the umbrella of Masipag and they all farm organically. They are a good example of how resilient and truly sustainable agriculture can be carried out – in a country where the so called “green revolution” was very predominant with heavy social and ecological impacts.
Up until the 70s, the Philippines was exporting rice. However, due to degradation of soils and flooding, they now import up to one million tons of rice. Therefore, the strategy of “producing enough food” and “lifting” farmers out of poverty by using high yielding varieties and pesticides was mostly a failure.
I met a former technical assistant from the breeder, Pioneer, who shared: “We were trained at university and then at Pioneer to spray, spray, spray. If there is a problem, you have to spray pesticides, even knowing that they are toxic for the people and the soil. There was a clear focus on yield – nothing else was counting”.
Organic experiences at the trial farms
At Masipag, the farmers use a different strategy; the trial farms. Masipag’s seed bank contains over 2,000 rice varieties of which 171 were bred by the farmers at the trial farms.
A trial farm can contain about 50 rice varieties from which the farmers can select up to 10. These rice varieties are adapted to local agro-ecosystems and are organically mass produced.
From the trial farms, farmers are able to select which parental material to use based on the objectives they set. For example, they are able to select a variety with good yield and resistant to prevalent pests in the community. However, this variety may not have a profound taste. This particular variety can be bred with another rice variety that is aromatic and glutinous on small plots. The resulting progenies are then selected using taste quality as the most important criteria.
For the farmers who are transitioning from chemical and monoculture production to organic rice production, shifting is relatively easy. This is mostly because they can experience it themselves that integrated farming systems ensure actual food security for the family and community at large.
With the diversified and integrated farms, Masipag farmers are able to utilize different varieties of rice and other crop species, and integrate them in to their animal production.
It’s also impressive the way the rice seeds were handled. Seeds are the beginning of every agricultural action and farmers know and respect that. They are trained to be breeders themselves instead of buying non-propagable seeds. Due to this practice, already 171 rice varieties in total have been bred by Masipag farmers.
They breed seeds native to the Philippines. The seeds are adapted to the diverse challenges in a country facing climatic extremes, for instance, drought, floods and are salt resistant. And especially in times of extreme climate uncertainties, they perform nearly as good as hybrid seeds; yielding an average of 4 tons per year.
From the Soil, the Seed Grows!
Usually in market economies, seeds are commercialized. However, at Masipag, the farmers freely swap seeds as it is viewed as a vital element that should not be monetized. To maintain this view, I realized a certain attitude of the farmers necessary.
They feel very connected to their soils, to their actions. In agricultural practices based on a lot of external input into the soil, I sense a growing trend of separation. If you do not see yourself as part of your environment, if you are in constant “war” against pests and diseases, you are disconnected. You as a farmer are not part of the environment anymore. If you approach your farm work and nature with respect – you work differently. And that starts with your seeds.
If you are the one who breeds the seeds, or one of your community members – you feel connected to it. And then as an outcome, you experience more healthy yields, profits, satisfaction, and food security. I saw the abundance of life and diversity, and less sickness.
One of the farmers, Leodi, shared: “I have eleven children. I used pesticides on my farm and had to go to the doctor often. I converted to organic and have been farming that way for several years now, and I hardly have to go to the doctor now. With less pesticide use, I have more food variety on the table and less sickness”
At the end of the day, many farmers like Leodi are able to free themselves from the debt trap. He is not dependent on external inputs any more – he feels connected to his own being and surrounding. He works with nature and not against it!
Along all necessary political and economic frameworks which have to change for more sustainable agriculture – I am convinced that consumers and farmers will have to face a transformation towards this feeling of mutual connection. And the sparks coming from farmers like Leodi, members of Masipag give me hope that we will succeed. I am inspired by this and do not doubt that the organic way is the path to take to ensure a sustainable present and future.
Author: Markus Wolter, Policy Advisor for agriculture and nutrition, at the department of Policy and Global Challenges at MISEREOR. Organic farmer in Northern Germany.
- Source: Organic Without Boundaries
Subscribe to Bio Eco Actual Newsletter and be up to date with the latest news from the Organic Sector
Bio Eco Actual, International Organic Newspaper
Read Bio Eco Actual